Hy-Brasil, the other Atlantis

When discussing underwater lore and legends, Atlantis is an obvious subject of interest. However, the lost island of Hy-Brasil is just as intriguing and has more first-person accounts.

Hy-Brasil is also spelled Hy-Breasal, Hy-Brazil, Hy-Breasil, Brazirand related variations. It may be the reason that the South American country, Brazil, was so named. The central image on the Brazilian flag, a circle with a channel across the center, is the symbol for Hy-Brasil on early maps.


Brasil showing up on the map of Ireland by Abraham Ortelius in 1572.

The name of Hy-Brasil may come from the Middle Ages term brazil,which seems to indicate a source of rare red dye. The dye may have acquired its name from the legendary island, or vice versa.

Or, the name Hy-Brasil, also called the Fortunate Island, may originate with the old Irish word, breas, meaning noble or fortunate.

In folklore, this island country takes its name from Breasal, the High King of the World, in Celtic history.

(He may or may not be related to Bresal Echarlam mac Echach Baethlaim, from the stories of Lugh at Tara. He was not St. Breasal, although pre-Christian folklore may be the foundation for that saint’s legends.)

Hy-Brasil was noted on maps as early as 1325, when Genoese cartographer Dalorto placed the island west of Ireland. On successive sailing charts, it appears southwest of Galway Bay.

On some 15th century maps, islands of the Azores appear as Isola de Brazil, or Insulla de Brazil.

After 1865, Hy-Brasil appears on few maps since its location could not be verified.

Regardless of the name or location, the island’s history is consistent: It is the home of a wealthy and highly advanced civilization. Those who visited the island returned with tales of gold-roofed towers and domes, healthy cattle, and opulent citizens.

The lore of Hy-Brasil is equally fascinating. For example, it is shrouded in fog or perhaps beneath the ocean, and appears only briefly, once every seven years.

The island has been visited by many people for centuries. Both Saint Barrind and Saint Brendan found the island on their respective voyages, and returned home with nearly identical descriptions of Hy-Brasil, which they dubbed the “Promised Land.”

One of the most famous visits to Hy-Brasil was in 1674 by Captain John Nisbet of Killybegs, Co. Donegal, Ireland. He and his crew were in familiar waters west of Ireland, when a fog came up. As the fog lifted, the ship was dangerously close to rocks. While getting their bearings, the ship anchored in three fathoms of water, and four crew members rowed ashore to visit Hy-Brasil.

They spent a day on the island, and returned with silver and gold given to them by an old man who lived there. Upon the return of the crew to Ireland, a second ship set out under the command of Alexander Johnson.

They, too, found the hospitable island of Hy-Brasil and returned to Ireland to confirm the tales of Captain Nisbet and crew.

The last documented sighting of Hy-Brasil was in 1872, when author T. J. Westropp and several companions saw the island appear and then vanish. This was Mr. Westropp’s third view of Hy-Brasil, but on this voyage he had brought his mother and some friends to verify the existence of Hy-Brasil.

Researchers and archaeologists have searched in the most likely locations west of Ireland, and there is evidence that islands existed there. Shallow-water shells have been found at Porcupine Bank, somewhat northwest of the most likely location of Hy-Brasil. Even further north, similar shells were discovered at Rockhall.

So, there is evidence of land mass changes in that part of the Atlantic Ocean.

The most distinctive geographical feature of Hy-Brasil, is that it appears on maps as a perfect circle, with a semi-circular channel through the center. The circular perimeter of the island was confirmed by both Saints Barrind and Brendan, who separately walked the shore to determine where the island ended, but never found it. Most likely, they were walking in circles.

Although Hy-Brasil does not have the fame of Atlantis, outside role-playing games, it is a story worth exploring.

Other names for Hy-Brasil: Tir fo-Thuin (Land Under the Wave), Mag Mell (Land of Truth), Hy na-Beatha (Isle of Life), and Tir na-m-Buadha (Land of Virtue). Fourteeth and Fifteenth century maps spell Hy-Brasil as Ysole Brazil, Bracir, and Hy Breasail.


You may find other articles from Fiona at her website, Faerie Magick.


Fiona Broome is an author, historian and consultant. Her research is usually extreme and groundbreaking, applying to a variety of fields. Online, she’s respected as the founder of Hollow Hill, one of the Internet’s oldest and largest websites about ghosts and haunted places.

  • Chris

    Atlantis may have been in the Mediterranean Sea after all. You may want to check out a brand new book titled “Uchronia?–Atlantis Revealed,” or go to http://www.AtlantisIslandRevealed.com for more information.
    The proposed Atlantis location in this book, in every way, matches Plato’s physical
    description. Just as Plato asserted, the northern region of this lost prehistoric island is entirely covered in mountains. There is a rectangular valley below this mountainous region and another valley further south that is 2/3 in size of the square valley. Also, and just as Plato said, 9 kilometers away from the main island, there is a small circular island that contains another tiny island in its flooded center (an island within an island setting, a sea volcano with a collapsed center). Ten millennia ago, ships could enter the watery center of this island through a single opening on its outer ring. One by one, and in the right order, all the physical characteristics and dimensions given by Plato, match the proposed site. If Plato’s Atlantis was ever real, this must have been the place he was talking about. Not only the geography of this site is identical, but remnants of an advanced Neolithic civilization in the immediate area, adds validity to this discovery. Check it out.
    As for the many other conflicting details in the story (since obviously Athens, triremes, etc. did not exist around 9600 BC when according to Plato Atlantis was still above water), I believe Plato did for Atlantis exactly what Homer did with the city of Troy in his epic book Iliad. (This very conflict, having to choose between
    the right chronology and modern details may be the reason why Atlantis eluded detection for so long). As it now appears, since there is a site that completely matches Plato’s chronology and physical description, this leads to the conclusion that he based his story of Atlantis on a real setting and a lost civilization known to ancient Greeks, while the “modern” details were inserted in this ideological story in order to convey to his audience some of his philosophical ideas (good vs. evil, ideal societies vs. corrupt).